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Table 1

Table 1:  Learners' Constructions of Good Students (across all three sites)

Way of Knowing Good Students . . . Sample Quotations

Instrumental Knowers

Study hard, follow clear directions and rules provided by teachers.

Gather a lot of information and skills (i.e., knowledge is constructed as an accumulation of facts and skills). 

Focus on finding the right answers and the right ways to do things.

Do well academically and they assess this by getting good grades, which are assigned by teachers.  

"If we spend some time and we study much, there will be no difficulty."

A good student will "come on time, do your homework, respect the teacher, you do what she told you to do."

Good students "get the right answers," and in taking notes, "write down [the explanation] exactly."

Socializing Knowers Have the right internal characteristics to learn.

Maintain positive attitudes about themselves and the subjects they are studying.

Rely on their teachers to tell them what they should know.

"The more [students] are open, they learn new things." 

Good students feel "comfortable" and "self-confident."

"I always ask my teacher, and he always explain, and I think this is wonderful."

Self-Authoring Knowers

Can create and explain their own complex ideas. 

Are comfortable holding ideas or opinions that differ from their teachers'.

Can evaluate their own learning
experiences by how well they meet their self-constructed goals.  

Are able to take responsibility for their own learning.

"I can use the English writing to express my thought, my feeling." 

"I have a deep impression that I can talk it."  

"No matter how good teacher you have, if you don't want to learn, you're not going to learn nothing."

"Before I thoughtÖ teachers [were] supposed to knowÖ But now I know it's up to me."

Table compiled by Deborah Helsing.